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1. Horace King-- From (Edited)
During the Civil War, King attempted to continue building bridges as an independent contractor, but necessity forced him into war-related work. After the war King maintained that he had always been a Unionist, and that he always "begged and talked for the Union." Even so, Confederate officials in Columbus forced the pro-Union King to blockade the lower Apalachicola River to prevent Union navigation, and the Alabama governor pressed him into the same activity along the lower Alabama River. King also erected a large mill structure and supplied wood products for Confederate naval facilities in Columbus. King maintained good relations with local naval officers, but in 1864 he wrote Jemison, then a member of the Confederate Senate, asking what would happen if he stopped working for the Confederacy. Jemison's response, if any, has not been preserved.


Creole guard company parades in Mobile; new campaign fights typhoid fever in city

Editor's Note: This snippet of Civil War news from the Press-Register of 1861 was published in the 1911 newspapers to mark the 50th anniversary of the conflict. The 1861 newspapers no longer exist in local library archives. The remaining excerpts are from the original edition of the Press-Register.
• “THE CREOLE GUARDS — This company paraded yesterday about 60 strong, and showed that they have been paying diligent attention to their drill. At fires, the Creoles can beat all the other companies in finding water. In case of invasion they will not fail to show equal alacrity and success in finding our enemy. We would be willing to risk the event of the contest on and an encounter between them and a Horace Greeley for Captain and Beecher and Cheever for Lieutenants. How they would run at a charge of bayonets from the Creoles and wouldn’t we all carry the Creoles high after the bloodless victory!”


The reader will find in our advertising columns a very interesting and important "Special Order" from Governor Shorter to Brig. Gen. Butler....The Brig. General and staff, and the entire militia of the brigade, are ordered into active service for ninety days, to be paid, provisioned, etc., as Confederate troops. The order, however, very properly gives the Commanding General a wise discretion as to the portions of his command which shall be ordered out for full time.

Mobile Register, March 13, 1862


Governor Shorter described those not in active service as doing only "drill, discipline and review"-
VI. Should you not deem it expedient at this time to put into service your entire command, you will order such portions, as are not placed in active service, out for drill, discipline and review as often as you may consider it necessary and proper.
Mobile Register, Thursday, March 13, 1862

The Creole Guards did more than drill, discipline and review-

You will meet at your Armory, this evening, 27th inst., at 7 1/2 o'clock, for Drill and Duty. It is expected that every member will be present.

By order of Capt. F. J. Barnard,
J. U. Barnard, O. S.

Mobile Register, Thursday, March 27, 1862


November 7, 1863.

Adjt. and Insp. Gen., C.S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I again call your attention to my request to accept into the Confederate service the company of creoles of Mobile, because I think that perhaps the War Department is not exactly informed about the people I have reference to. When Spain ceded this territory to the United States in 1803, the creoles were guaranteed all the immunities and privileges of the citizens of the United States, and have continued to enjoy them up to this time. They have, many of them, negro blood in the degree which disqualifies other persons of negro race from the rights of citizens, but they do not stand here on the footing of negroes. They are very anxious to enter the Confederate service, and I propose to make heavy artillerists of them, for which they will be admirably qualified. Please let me hear at your earliest convenience if I may have them enrolled in a company, or in companies if I can find enough of them to make more than one company.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,"


In April-May 1862 Another Mobile citizen had virtually asked the same permission, via Mr. D. S. Dargan to the Secretary of War G. W. Randolph, Mr. G. Huggins Cleveland wrote...

"Sir: I can raise a battalion or regiment of creoles, who are mixed blooded; all of them free under the treaty with France by which Louisiana was acquired. They are mostly property-holders, owning slaves, and a peaceable, orderly class, and capable of doing good service. They are as true to the South as the pure white race. As yet none of them have gone to the war, but have been anxious to do so. If such a battalion or regiment can be received, I can raise it in a few days. Please let me know if such material will be accepted."

Then the answer given was...

"SIR: Your letter of the 23d ultimo, recommending that authority be granted to G. H. Cleveland to raise a battalion or regiment of creoles, has been received. In reply I have the honor to inform you that the law does not permit the Department to accept any new corps. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, A. T. BLEDSOE, Assistant Secretary of War."


Eventually Alabama thought they needed their services and passed this law...

"AN ACT to authorize the enrollment of the Creoles of Mobile.

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Alabama in General Assembly convened, that certain persons of mixed blood, residing ill the city and county of Mobile, commonly known as Creoles, be, and the same are hereby, authorized to be enrolled as militia for the defense of the city and county of Mobile, if in the opinion of the mayor of the city it is expedient.

SECTION 2. Be it further enacted, That the enrollment authorized by the first section of this act shall be made as follows, to wit: The mayor shall enroll such male Creoles between the ages of eighteen years and fifty years who wish to be enrolled. He shall then divide them into suitable companies, and appoint some discreet white man as commissioned officer to command said companies. Said companies shall be confined exclusively to the defense of the city and county of Mobile, and shall be under the command of the military authorities in the city of Mobile. Approved November 20, 1862."


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