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Documentation Page 1


Southern newspapers--


I think a good place to start would be some selected newspaper accounts listed by state if they can be found as I am sure some states will have more information than others. When I say selected I am referring to only those articles which show support for the Confederate cause, not stray off onto other subjects. Not all states are represented, not all articles posted. Articles which appear to duplicate each other, even though they may be from different newspapers will not be presented. These accounts date from 1861 until early 1864. These articles generally deal only with negroes supporting the Confederacy in some manner. They are in no particular order, but are divided by jobs so to speak

We do fully understand that these newspaper accounts are not the most desirable and accurate acounts that should be used as a source. It is true that I found these accounts on the web. However should a person dispute the accuracy of these accounts I have no objection to him/her finding sources that prove they are wrong.To reiterate SHAPE’s stance on opinions, we couldn't care less. They do provide a source of information that can lead to other research and sources. We also understand there are several accounts where no names and only numbers are used and it will be impossible to "prove the service of this Black person(s). We understand that these accounts will be termed as propaganda for "The Southern Cause" by those who doubt the service of blacks.

Yes you can say they were "only cooks" or slaves to dig ditches, but when two armies meet on the battlefield anyone is subject to kill, be killed or captured.
At this point in time I am not sure if we will use any accounts from Northern newspapers. It will depend on the direction our readers take us.
These accounts are found at -----
Ihttp://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/newspaper_titles.htm
http://www.mdgorman.com/Written_Accounts/newspape.htm



As Soldiers

The Daily True Delta, May 26, 1861…
Virginia Experience…Louisiana Troops in Richmond.
A letter from Harper’s Ferry printed in the Richmond Enquirer…
“We learn from a gentleman who came up from Harper’s Ferry on Tuesday, that he met 1,254 gallant Alabama volunteers, on their way to join our troops at the Ferry. They were all armed to the teeth, and had with them from 50 to 75 negroes, all of whom were also armed, and ready to fight for themselves and their masters.
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The Daily True Delta, August 3, 1862, Affairs in Tennessee, The Capture of Murfreesboro, The Philidelphia Press of the 19th…
All who have escaped, and citizens of the place, declare that a battalion of negroes assisted the rebels…
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The Daily True Delta, Oct. 21, 1862, Virginia Army News, An Expedition to Rappahannock Station…
…resulting in the capture of forty or fifty rebels soldiers, several negroes and an ambulance. The prisoners were at once paroled.
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The Daily True Delta, Nov. 22, 1861 (Louisiana C.S.A.)
The Grand Review (armed)…The Great Turnout Next Saturday- Interesting Facts For Officers and Soldiers…
In forming the division line, on Saturday, the cavalry and artillery will form on the north or lower side of Canal Street, …The infantry will be formed in one line, of two ranks, on both sides of Canal Street, as follows:
The Louisiana Legion will have the right of the line, or head of column,…
…The Regiment of Native Guards, and other organizations of free colored men, will form on the left of the division line.
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The Daily True Delta, Aug. 22, 1861 (Louisiana, C.S.A.)
The Free Colored Soldiers of Baton Rouge.- The company of free-colored soldiers (citizens of Baton Rouge and vicinity) which we some weeks since announced was being organized under Capt. H. B. Favrot, is at length fully equipped, armed and ready for service. Referring to their first public parade, the Gazette of Tuesday last says:
Capt. H. B. Favrot’s Company- This company made their first appearance in the streets of the city, on Sunday evening last. They are a fine looking band of our free colored friends, whose services have been counted on heretofore, and who are now with us heart and hand, ready to emulate the deeds of their fathers on the plains of Chalmette. As they passed our window, they numbered about sixty, completely equipped, well armed, formidable men. They are an independent company-organized principally for home protection. In sympathy as well as interest, they are with us. Their lives and property, are in the same jeopardy by the invasion with ours, and they will make their mark in case by any possible chance that insolent braggart, Fremont, should succeed in passing the fortifications above, or place the city of New Orleans in jeopardy by landing at the Balize. The men are all known to us, but we are not sufficiently well posted in military matters, to give the names of the officers from their position..
Capt. H. B. bears himself with the same elasticity of step; the same martial air as of old. Indeed, the exigencies of the time have taken the years off his shoulders, when in the by gone time he marched at the head of the invincible Chasseurs. Nine cheers for Capt. H. B. and thrice nine for his gallant company.

The Free Colored Soldiers of Baton Rouge.- The company of free-colored soldiers (citizens of Baton Rouge and vicinity) which we some weeks since announced was being organized under Capt. H. B. Favrot, is at length fully equipped, armed and ready for service. Referring to their first public parade, the Gazette of Tuesday last says:
Capt. H. B. Favrot’s Company- This company made their first appearance in the streets of the city, on Sunday evening last. They are a fine looking band of our free colored friends, whose services have been counted on heretofore, and who are now with us heart and hand, ready to emulate the deeds of their fathers on the plains of Chalmette. As they passed our window, they numbered about sixty, completely equipped, well armed, formidable men. They are an independent company-organized principally for home protection. In sympathy as well as interest, they are with us. Their lives and property, are in the same jeopardy by the invasion with ours, and they will make their mark in case by any possible chance that insolent braggart, Fremont, should succeed in passing the fortifications above, or place the city of New Orleans in jeopardy by landing at the Balize. The men are all known to us, but we are not sufficiently well posted in military matters, to give the names of the officers from their position..
Capt. H. B. bears himself with the same elasticity of step; the same martial air as of old. Indeed, the exigencies of the time have taken the years off his shoulders, when in the by gone time he marched at the head of the invincible Chasseurs. Nine cheers for Capt. H. B. and thrice nine for his gallant company.
(Capt. H. M . Favrot, would lead the Delta Rifles, Co. F, of the 4th Louisana at the Battle of Shilo.)



The Richmond Daily Dispatch: April 27, 1861.
A Dusky Regiment.
The Petersburg Express has an account of the departure of 100 free negroes from that city for Norfolk, to work on the fortifications. They were addressed in an appropriate manner, by Messrs. John Dodson and Wm. Fenn, and the last-named gentleman presented them with a beautiful Confederate States flag, made by the true and noble-hearted ladies of Bollingbrook street, as a token of their appreciation of the generous efforts they were about to make, to achieve a successful defence of Virginia soil and principles.
Charles Tinsley, one of their number, stepped forward to receive the flag, and in reply said--"We are willing to aid Virginia's cause to the utmost extent of our ability.--We do not feel that it is right for us to remain here idle, when white gentlemen are engaged in the performance of work at Norfolk that is more suitable to our hands, and of which it is our duty to relieve them. There is not an unwilling heart among us, not a hand but will tell in the work before us; and we promise unhesitating obedience to all orders that may be given to us." In referring to the flag, he said-- "I could feel no greater pride, no more genuine gratification, than to be able to plant it first upon the ramparts of Fortress Monroe."
This was truly a patriotic speech, coming from the source it did, and was received with a general outburst of cheering and applause.
The men were then marched down Sycamore street to the tune of "Dixie," to the depot, where, in the presence of an immense crowd of darkeys, they took their departure."
Petersburg Va. Federal Census, 1860, Charles Tinsley, Age 28, Mulatto, Bricklayer.

***********
The Daily Dispatch: July 16, 1861.

Free Negro operatives.

--Several hundred free men of color were listed at the City Hall yesterday to serve in completing the fortifications now being erected below this city. We noticed in our perambulations yesterday that many of the barber shops had been closed, the operatives therein having been withdrawn for the purpose above named. This class of the colored population is confessedly superior in intelligence, worth and breeding to their compatriots, and are, besides, of great value to the male white population who are unaccustomed to the shaving process, and who have been in the habit of availing themselves of the barbers' skill. We had hoped they would have escaped the "impressment" authorized by the Convention and Common Council. It seems certain to us that a barber who has been in the habit of wielding nothing heavier than a razor will necessarily make a very unproductive hand at rolling a wheelbarrow or shoveling dirt. The barbers have, however, evinced no unwillingness to serve the State; on the contrary, if allowed, would furnish substitutes. The only question is, whether they cannot benefit the community more in their original position than in the one that has been assigned them.

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The Richmond Daily Dispatch: December 31, 1863.

The Creole population of the South.
The word Creole signifies, we believe, native. In Louisiana and Mississippi every person born in the State is called a Louisiana or Mississippi Creole. Nothing is more common in the former of these States than to hear of "Creole Frenchmen," as distinguished from Frenchmen from France. In the same way they speak of Creole horses, Creole cattle, Creole sheep, &c. Out of Louisiana and Mississippi, however, the term seems to have a more limited significance, and a Creole is understood to be a person that has mixed African and European blood in his veins — precisely the same description of person, Indeed, with what is called a quadroon in New Orleans. In this sense it seems to be taken by Mr. Dargan, of Alabama, in the very important bill which he has introduced into the House of Representatives, and which is now before the Committee on Military Affairs. The object of the bill is to receive into the Confederate service all that portion of the population of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, known as Creoles.
We have no means of estimating the number of men that the passage of this bill would place in the service of the Confederate States. We should suppose, however, that it would not fall short of 20,000. A large proportion of these persons are as white as anybody, having but a very small portion of African blood in their veins.--Many of them have large estates and own large numbers of slaves. Formerly — so far as regards Louisiana, at least — they were forbidden by law to intermarry with whites; but that law,
we believe, has been repealed, and an enabling act passed in its stead. The better portion of them are a highly respectable class of people, and all of them, almost without exception, are warm Southern men, and eagerly desirous to bear arms in defence of the South. We learn from Gen. Dargan's speech that on a former occasion they applied through him to Gen. Randolph, at that time Secretary of War, for leave to enter the service. The application was rejected on the ground that it would afford a pretext to the enemy for arming our negroes. This objection, substantial enough at the time, has been obviated by the course of the enemy, who has already armed fifty thousand Southern slaves, and will arm all of them if he can. Application has since been made to the present Secretary, who rejects it because, says he,"the position we occupy before the world would be damaged thereby."

Before rejecting a bill which tends so materially to strengthen our muster list, we think it would be just as well to understand what is our "position before the world,"and as the Secretary seems to understand it better than anybody else, we hope he will enlighten us. To our simple apprehension it appears that "the world" assigns us no position at all. We are ignored by every power on the face of the earth, from England, France, and Russia, down to the dirtiest little tyrant whose five-acre patch of a kingdom is watered by the Elbe, the Oder, or the Wester. Our ships are scarcely allowed to touch at their ports, our representatives at their courts are insulted in every conceivable manner, we are universally styled the "so-called" Confederate States whenever it is necessary to speak of us at all in a public document, and in the Queen of England's speech this war is designated as "the civil war now raging in the United States.-- Really, we should be obliged for any information as to that "position" whose requirements are so exacting as to deprive us of the services of twenty thousand brave soldiers at such a time as this.

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Richmond Dispatch.
Tuesday morning...December 29, 1863.
Confederate States Congress
Mr. Dargan, of Ala, presented a bill entitled an act to receive into the service of the Confederate States that portion of the population of the States of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida, known as and called Creoles. Referred to the Military Committee.

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The Richmond Daily Dispatch: May 20, 1861
A character.
--There is an old colored drummer in one of the Roanoke companies, now here, who served in the same capacity during the war of 1812. He still looks hale and healthy, and upon being asked whether he could go through the present war, remarked, "yes, massa, I expect to live to git old Linkum's skull." This is characteristic of the general feeling amongst all the blacks who are now serving in the ranks.--Lynchburg Virginian.

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The Richmond Daily Dispatch: August 1, 1861.
Old "Uncle Dick."
--On Tuesday afternoon last a considerable crowd collected on Main street, near 12th, to listen to many interesting incidents of the battle at Manassas, which were being related by an old colored hero named "Dick," who was an active participant in the eventful engagement at that memorable place. His age, he said, was over sixty years, and every one who saw the venerable, silvery locks which covered the old patriot's head, readily credited the statement. Having enlisted as a drummer, on the day of the battle he marched out into the field at the head of his company, performing in his best manner on that soul-inspiring instrument. Soon the balls began whizzing thick and fast around his head, when, thinking his time could be better employed, without waiting for orders, old uncle Dick swung the instrument on which he was playing over his shoulder, and picking up the gun of a defunct Hessian, participated in the popular amusement of the day of pulling down the enemy at long taw. He seems certain of having made more than one of them bite the dust.
The capture of a live Yankee by this old negro, was related by him in the most enthusiastic manner. He espied one of them somewhat separated from the rest, in the act of cutting stick for Washington, and immediately started in pursuit of him. On coming up with the braveLincoln soldier, he brought his gun to bear on uncle "Dick; " but this, he said, he had no fear of, and did not halt until he had a fast hold on the Yankee's collar, and lost no time in conducting him where the prisoners had been confined.
On asking the old negro if he intended returning to his army, he promptly answered that he should do so as soon as he transacted his business in this city, and that he expected in a short time to beat on his drum in the streets of Washington that good old tune, "Dixie." "Our pickets," he said, "were in two miles of Alexandria, and Mas. Beauregard would not be long in driving the d — d Yankees from Arlington."

******************
Richmond Daily Dispatch.
Thursday morning...April 25, 1861
Old Dick, the drummer.
--A few days ago there appeared in the local department of this paper the following paragraph:
‘ ‘"Dick, a venerable darkey in uniform, was arrested for carrying a huge bowie-knife. He was on his return home to Danville from a complaint against the Yankees, and the Mayor discharged him after confiscating the knife."’
’ This has elicited from "A. B. V." a "vindication" of old Dick, including a sketch of his career, which we publish entire, not only as an act of justice to ‘"the subject of this notice,"’ but because it fully repays perusal:
The person above referred to has occupied the position of chief drummer for the 18th Virginia regiment for the last eight months, and is highly esteemed by the regiment, not only as a musician, but as a brave and gallant old man. He is a hero of two wars, and in several instances has rendered good service to the country. When the war with Mexico broke out, he enlisted as musician for a South Carolina regiment and followed it through the war, and was present when the glorious Gen. Butler fell. The war being successfully terminated, he returned home to his usual avocations. Upon the breaking out of our present war, though old and gray, he was among the first to respond to Virginia's call for volunteers, and was regularly mustered into service with the 18th Regiment. Since that time he has not only carried his drum, but also the bowie-knife referred to above, and a musket. In the memorable battle of the twenty-first July, he deserted his drum, and with musket in hand followed the regiment throughout the battle. Several days after the battle, while strolling through the woods, he discovered the hiding place of what he thought a Yankee, and, on reporting it, went down with several of the regiment and captured three of the creatures--one of them Colonel Wood, of the Fourteenth Brooklyn. In every scene of danger or of difficulty, old Dick has accompanied the regiment with bowie-knife by his side and musket in hand. When on picket duty at Mason's hill, in sight of the enemy, he would go beyond the picket lines to get a fair crack at the Yankee pickets. In fine, old Dick, we believe, is a gentleman and true patriot, and we feel sorry that his knife, around which clung so many proud associations to him, should have been taken from him. He valued it above all things except his musket. It is true the law may have required its confiscation, as setting a bad example to darkeys in civil life; but, under the circumstances, it does seem hard to have subjected the old man not only to the loss of his bowie-knife, but the mortification attendant, or a suspicion of evil designs. We hope old Dick may live to prove his character still further by bagging his Yankee.

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The Daily Dispatch: January 2, 1862. Richmond Dispatch.
New Orleans, (Via Charleston,)April 22.-- A meeting was held here to-day to clear the city of Abolitionists and suspected persons. Two are under arrest.
The free negroes have organized a company to defend the State.
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Richmond Daily Dispatch.
Wednesday morning...May 8, 1861
The N. O. Picayune says that fifteen hundred free negroes of that city have enrolled themselves as ready, if allowed, to perform military duty, and "fight, shoulder by shoulder, with the citizens, as their fathers did in 1814. "
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Richmond Daily Dispatch.
New Orleans, Nov. 24, 1861
From New Orleans.
Grand Review of troops — a Regiment of 1,400 free negroes in the line — the black flag.
--Over twenty-eight thousand troops were reviewed here on yesterday by Gov. Moore, of Louisiana, Major General Lovell, and Brigadier-General Ruggles. The line was over seven miles long.
One regiment, numbering 1,400, were free colored men.
The military display was one of the grandest exhibitions ever witnessed on this continent. One of the companies displayed a black flag, with the motto "We give and take no quarters."



Richmond Daily Dispatch.
Friday Morning...April 19, 1861.
The Newbern (N. C.) Progress, of the 17th inst., says:
The committee, of which we were a member, having performed the commission they were sent to do, returned by a special train last night. There are now about 150 to 200 men under arms at Fort Macon, and everything is being put in order. Should a Government vessel attempt to enter the harbor they will receive a warm reception, certain.
The ladies of Newbern were busily engaged yesterday making bedding and other things necessary for the comfort of our military companies who went down to Fort Macon last night.
Yesterday, when our military companies were beating up for recruits, about sixty free negroes volunteered and went down to Fort Macon to do battle for their country, while another gave twenty-five dollars cash to help support the war; and still another, who is a poor man, having just arrived at our wharf with a load of wood for sale, delivered it up to the town auctioneer, with a request to sell it and appropriate it in the same way.
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Monday morning...April 22, 1861.
The Newbern Progress, speaking of the colored population, says:
We learn from Mayor Lane that 15 or 20 more free negroes came forward yesterday morning and volunteered their services to go to the Fort and work or assist in the defence of the Fort, if required. Laborers enough having gone to the Fort, they were not sent down, but requested by Mayor Lane to hold themselves in readiness
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Petersburg, April 23, 1861.
Large numbers of free negroes have offered their services, and will be sent to Norfolk to erect batteries. Many of the poor creatures are out of employment, in consequence of the closing of the tobacco factories, and it would be a mercy to give them some useful work to perform, if only for their bread and meat.--Some of the more thrifty of the class have subscribed liberally to bear their expenses--one of them as much as $100; others smaller sums.
---------------------------------
Richmond Dispatch.
Thursday morning...April 25, 1861
About fifty free negroes → in Amelia county have offered themselves to the Government for any service.
In our neighboring city of Petersburg, two hundred free negroes offered for any work that might be assigned to them, either to fight under white officers, dig ditches, or anything that could show their desire to serve Old Virginia. In the same city, a negro hackman came to his master, and insisted, with tears in his eyes, that he should accept all his savings, $100, to help equip the volunteers.--The free negroes of Chesterfield have made a similar proposition. Such is the spirit, among bond and free, through the whole of the State. The fools and scoundrels who calculate on a different state of things, will soon discover their mistake.
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Richmond Dispatch.
Thursday morning...April 25, 1861
The following items are from the Norfolk Argus:
A large number of slaves are busily working upon the batteries and other means of defending the harbor. The services of many of these stalwart sons of Africa have been tendered by their generous owners and they enter upon their new duties zealously and eagerly.
Captain Walker, of the ship schooner Zephaniah, which arrived from Baltimore on Mondaynight, reports that on his way down the Bay he saw two large steamers, probably transports, bound up. One of them appeared to be filled with troops. He also saw a third steamer, yesterday, take troops to Fort Monroe.
A list of thirty-two worthy free negroes of this city, who have offered their services in the work of defence, or in any other capacity required, has been sent in to the Captain of the Woodis Riflemen.
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The Daily Dispatch: may 20, 1861.
Petersburg, May 18, 1861.
The company of free negroes, under the command of Captain Finn, who have been engaged at Norfolk for several weeks, returned this afternoon, to spend the holidays with their wives and sweethearts. They will go back next week. It did one good to look on their happy, joyous faces, on which not a care of any kind has left its imprint. They appeared to be quite flush of the needful, and as soon as they were disbanded, numbers of them proceeded to the market-house, for the purpose of treating their families to the delicacies of the season. Mon Coeur.
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The Daily Dispatch: July 17, 1861.
The Convention and the free negroes .
--The Convention, after authorising the impressment of the free negro population to aid in works of defence, further provides-- That all free negroes thus detailed, and appearing at the place of rendezvous, shall be received into public service (under such officers as may be detailed by the Commandant as aforesaid to receive them) as laborers, on condition that they be entitled to such compensation, rations, quarters, and medical attendance, as may be allowed other labor of a similar character employed in the public service; and that they shall not be detained, at any one time, for a longer period than thirty days, without their consent.
That any free nervously detailed and notified as aforesaid, who shall fail or refuse to obey the requisition as aforesaid, shall be subject to the penalties provided by law for persons drafted from the militia and failing or refusing to obey such draft.
Such free negroes shall, whilst engaged in the public service as aforesaid, be subject to the rules and articles of war.
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The Daily Dispatch: September 19, 1861
Contribution from free Negroes.
The Charleston Mercury says:
The free colored men of Charleston have contributed $450 to sustain the cause of the South. The zealous and unfailing alacrity with which this class of our population have always devoted their labor and their means to promote the safety of the State, is alike honorable to themselves and gratifying to the community.
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The Richmond Daily Dispatch: December 28, 1861.
The skirmish near Newport News. The following paragraph in reference to a skirmish near Newport News, we take from the "Situation" article of the New York Herald, of the 25th inst.:
The skirmish at Newport News on the 22d was a brisk affair, considering that the 20th New York regiment, engaged on our side, had only two companies in the field, and were suddenly surrounded at Newmarket Bridge by force of 700 rebel cavalry and infantry, but succeeded in cutting their way through them without losing a man. Six of the 20th however were slightly wounded.--
Ten of the enemy are known to have been killed, and a number wounded. Seven dead bodies were found yesterday morning; one was that of an officer, and was taken to Newport News. He wore buttons lettered " A. M. M.," perhaps the Alabama Minutes Men. It is reported that a whole company of negroes were engaged, and two of our men are known to have been shot by them. General Mansfield and Acting Brigadier General Weber, highly complimented the troops engaged, for their coolness and bravery.
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Tuesday morning...Jan. 29, 1861.
Items from Georgia.
Joe Clark, a colored barber of this city, has written a letter to Gov. Brown, offering to raise a company of free colored men, to be enlisted in the service of the State of Georgia in the present crisis. Whatever may be thought of the policy of enlisting soldiers of this cast, the offer is a patriotic one, and ought to show the "philanthropists" of the North that the free colored population of the South do not appreciate their efforts in behalf of the negro race. Joe served in the Indian war of 1836, and still limps occasionally from a wound received in that campaign.
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Richmond Dispatch
Friday morning...May 24, 1861
Clarksville, Mecklenburg co., May 21, 1861
A servant of Thomas B. Wall, of this county, insisted so much on going with Capt. Finley's company, that his master consented for him to go. He was told that his clothes were not fit; he replied that he had money to buy suitable clothing. When told that he would have to pay his expenses on the railroad, he said he had fifty dollars which he had made by hard work, and he wanted to go to fight, to die for the South. The conduct of this intelligent servant is much praised.

The Daily Dispatch: September 19, 1861
Gen. Lyon killed by a Darkey,
The Fort Smith (Ark,) Times contains the following in relation to the death of General Lyon at the battle of Oak Hill, in Missouri: A negro man, body servant to Capt. John Griffith, of the gallant Third, was in the hottest of the fight, at Oak Hill, and fought in the last charge like a tiger. He claims to have killed Gen. Lyon. He says, he shot a man in the breast, that was on a large grey horse, and was waving his hat, and he saw him fall. Thus it is very probably that the Abolition Lyon fell by the hands of a darkey.
This same black man, finding his youngest master. Benj. Griffith, wounded in the calf of the leg, picked him up, and carried him off of the field; notwithstanding, Ben resisted it with all his might, as he wanted to fire a few more rounds at the Dutch..



Arrival of French officers at Mobile — appropriate escort Promised to prisoners.
Mobile, Sept. 24.
--Three officers from the French
Ship corvette Savoissier arrived this evening, bringing a mail bag. An immense crowd congregated at the landing to greet them on their arrival. The vessel is anchored near the passes.
It is understood that the prisoners expected to-morrow will be escorted to the parish prison by a colored company.



Richmond Dispatch.
Tuesday morning...Sept. 24, 1861.
Free Government transportation.
Entitled to transportation.
Officers and soldiers, under orders and on official business.
Paymaster's clerks, under orders.
Soldiers left behind, sick or by accident, and recruits with orders, are entitled to transportation to their companies.
Sick and wounded soldiers, having an order for transportation from a Medical Director or from a Surgeon General, home and back.
Rejected recruits.
Soldiers honorably discharged, except those discharged for wounds or sickness, who are provided for by railroad resolutions.
Officers and soldiers transferred by order of the War Department or General Commanding.
Horses of officers, according to regulation allowance.
Assistant Surgeons on duty, obeying first order.
Recruiting officers, on recruiting service, by authority of their regimental officers and with the approval of the officer commanding the post.
An escort of one man will be allowed with the remains of deceased officers and soldiers.
Stores and supplies for troops or hospitals.
Colored cooks and musicians, when included as members of companies.



New Orleans Commercial Bulletin April 4, 1862
The Mississippians At Donelson.
...Lieut. McGowan, of the same company [Quitman Invincibles, 14th Mississippi], in a hand to hand fight, shot down five of the enemy in one pile, with a navy repeater. While thus engaged, he had a negro boy, his servant, who ran up to assist his master, and while fighting manfully by his side was shot down by the enemy, when his master, with one wipe of his bowie-knife, killed the man who slew his servant...
( Remember this boy wasn't a soldier, he was just a "servent." Convince me he doesn't deserve the honors of a soldier)
(Submitted by David Upton)



(Do Not have permission to use name of submitter)
From the Macon Daily Telegraph, April 9, 1861:

A Southern Rights Negro from Atlanta, goes to fight the Abolitionist.
The following incident occurred yesterday in connection with the assembling in our city of the Volunteer Soldiers from various parts of the State, preparatory to their leaving for Pensacola, and serves to illustrate the character and condition of the slaves of the South.
A faithful negro man 55 or 60 years of age, belonging to John Neal, Esq., of Atlanta, accompanied the “Gate City Guards,” from Atlanta to Macon as Fifer, without any expectation of going further, and having a son living in Macon, whom of course he wished to visit. Yesterday morning I received a letter from Mr. Neal, saying one of his sons was a member of a Volunteer Company of Quincy, Fla., and en route for Pensacola, via Montgomery, Ala., and requested me to see Glasgow—inform him of his young master being in the army, and that he desired Glasgow to meet him at Montgomery, and to request Capt. Ezzard, of the “Gate City Guards” to let Glasgow continue with his company as far as Montgomery, to meet young Neal, all of which was arranged as desired, and much to Glasgow’s joy. Late yesterday evening Glasgow called upon me, accompanied by his son, to have his worldly affairs arranged, (as all prudent men do when embarking in hazardous enterprises:) and stated he wished it to be “put in writing” for him, that if he never returned, or fell in “de service and defence of de country, he wished his money to the paid over to his son Washington, (who was present with him,) that his young master in Atlanta had it loaned out for him—mentioned what it would amount to next Christmas—(a very handsome sum.) I promised him in presence of witnesses I would reduce his nun cupative will to writing, and send it to his master, who would faithfully carry it out, I knew. I bade Glasgow farewell, and with a hearty shake of hands, he left me, satisfied he had arranged his pecuniary affairs properly, and rejoicing that he would soon be with his “young master” in Montgomery to share his fortunes in defence of Southern Rights and Southern institutions. Wonder what Greeley, “et id omne genus,” thinks of such evidence, (and there will be thousands of such whenever opportunity offers, throughout the entire slave States,) of dissatisfaction of our negroes—their feelings and attachments to their masters? B.
MACON, April 6th, 1861.
We happened to see Glasgow when he left and feel confident that no one when forth, “in defence ob de country,” feeling the responsibility more than he. As to what “Greeley thinks” that we will never know, for his peculiar province lies in suppressing the truth in relation to anything which may occur in the South, and as an evidence of his success in this branch we refer the reader to a perusal of the Tribune, where he will see statements of a famine, insurrections, Union sentiments in the Gulf States, &c., &c., which we, right in the heart of it, see or hear nothing of.



Colored Troops Fought Nobly (from the Hawkinsville (GA) Dispatch, Feb 5, 1885)
Mr J B Briggs of Briggsville KY is the only person who commanded colored troops in action on the Confederate side during the war.
At the battle of Chickamauga the Fourth TN Cavalry was dismounted to fight as infantry, every fourth man being told to hold horses. The horse holders, and also all of the colored servants, were kept in the rear. The colored men numbered about 40 and having been in service a long time, had gradually armed themselves. Some of them were even better equipped than their masters, for on successful raids and battles they could follow in the rear and pick up those things that the soldiers had no time to secure; so that these colored servants could each boast of one or two revolvers and a fine carbine or repeating rifle.
During all of the early part of the battle of Chickamauga, the Fourth TN Cavalry had been fighting as infantry, and as it became evident that a victory was to be won, Col McLemore commanding, ordered Captain Briggs to return to the horse holders and after placing the horses, teams, etc under charge of the servants to bring up the quarter of the regiment in charge of the horses so that they might take part in the final triumph. Capt Briggs on reaching the horses was surprised to find the colored men organized and equipped, under Daniel McLemore, colored (servant to the Col of the regiment) and demanding the right to go into the fight. After trying to dissuade them from this, Capt Briggs led them up to the line of battle which was just then preparing to assault Gen Thomas’ position. Thinking they would be of service in caring for the wounded, Capt Briggs held them close up the line, but when the advance was ordered the negro company became enthused as well as their master, and filled a portion of the line of advance as well as any company of the regiment.



The Daily Dispatch: March 20, 1863. (Not the Complete article)
Jeff. Davis's "black battalions."
The richest article we have seen in a Northern paper is the following, from the Nashville Union. In view of the negro regiment bill it is peculiarly racy:
During the fight the battery in charge of the 85th Indiana was attacked by two rebel negro regiments. Our artillerists double shotted their guns and cut the black rebels to pieces and brought their battery safely off. It has been stated repeatedly, for the past two weeks that a large number, perhaps one fourth of Van-Dorn's forces were negro soldiers; and the statement is fully confirmed by this unfortunate engagement.
The Southern rebels have forced their miserable negroes to take up arms to destroy the Government and enslave us and our children.
Freemen of the North and of the South! does it not make your blood boil in your veins like a flood of fiery lava? Does it not make your hearts swell with indigestion, that your liberties, your Government, and your happiness, should be destroyed by the negro troops of Jeff Davis?



Staunton Vindicator: December 2, 1864
Enlistment of Negroes
(Column 2)
Summary: The writer points out that, in light of the recent discussions regarding use of African Americans in the Confederate army, readers should be aware that James Madison recommended their employment in the Revolutionary army. He proposed that slaves be offered their freedom and wages if they enlisted. Owners received compensation of a maximum of 120 pounds.

Origin of Article: Sentinel
Full Text of Article:
Negroes for the Army.
In the Senate on Tuesday, Mr. Henry of Tennessee, from the committee on Military Affairs, reported a bill to amend an act to increase the efficiency of the army by the employment of free negroes and slaves in certain cap cities. The bill increased the compensation given to free negroes and and [sic] other free persons of color to $18 per month; authorizes the employment of 40,000 slaves, instead of 20,000 by the Secretary of War--to impress them, if unable to hire them, and those not engaged in agricultural productions shall be the first impressed, and then those engaged in agricultural pursuits are to be taken from persons having more than fifteen able bodied hands, between the ages of 16 and 50 years. The bill was ordered to be printed, and placed upon the calendar.
If free persons of color were not already prior to the publish date, how could their pay be increased??/



The Daily Dispatch: March 28, 1864.
Affairs in "West Virginia."
--A letter containing some account of affairs in North western Virginia, written by an officer who has just returned from Barbour county, says:

The bogus Government has been able to collect but a very small portion of its taxes from the people on Barbour. The sheriffs, &c., have to be supported by a company of armed men, and are bushwhacked at every step. There is a settlement on Sandy Creek called Guinea Town, peopled by quadroons and free negroes, numbering about one hundred arms bearing men, who refuse to give up the arms heretofore Issued them by the Yankee Government. The Yankees marched on them 120 strong, and were met and repulsed by these settlers three different times, killing five and wounding eleven. They were masters of the situation at last accounts. They want the substance as well as the shadow of freedom. They inquired of Capt.--if we would receive them as a company in our service.

The Union men of Northern Virginia have despaired of subjugating the South, but expect West Virginia to be held by the Federal Government, and the independence of the balance acknowledged — The people of that section say that the question of another Confederacy is being mooted in Indiana and Southern illinois and Northern Ohio, privately, and that it may culminate even as soon as the next Presidential election. God speed it.



Richmond Dispatch, 6/6/1862, p. 3, c. 5
WANTED – Two good negro MEN as COOKS for the Deas Light Artillery, to whom will be paid good wages. They will be provided with quarters, clothing and provisions, free of charge. Apply at the Recruiting office, corner of Pearl and Main streets, upstairs.

NORRIS MONTGOMERY,
Captain, Comd’g Company.



DAILY ADVOCATE [BATON ROUGE, LA], May 3, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
Tender of the Services of a Company of Negroes.—We are informed that Mr. G. C. Hale, of Autauga county, tendered to Gov. Moore of Alabama the services of a company of negroes to assist in driving back the horde of Abolition sycophants who are now talking so flippantly of reducing to a conquered province the Confederate States of the South. He agrees to command them himself, and guarantees that they will do effective service.



DALLAS HERALD, September 25, 1861, p. 1, c. 3|
A correspondent writing from Camp Walker, Ark., gives us the following amusing incidents, told in connexion [sic] with the battle of Oak Hills: . . .
After the battle was over, a negro belonging to an officer, and one who had fought side by side with his Master, was seen marching through the camp with a large fat Dutchman waddling along before him.—Some one called out to know what he had there. His reply was, "Oh, nuffin, sar, but one o' dem d----d Dutches." "What are you going to do with him," was the next enquiry. "Jis takin him to show to Massa; and as he wished him to turn to the right or left in passing through the camp, the negro would bawl out in an authoritative tone, "file right (or left,) you d---d Dutch; shoot white folks, ha!"
After the fight, an old woman came into the camp and said she wanted to see a Texian Ranger. A polite gentleman showed her around to Col. Greer's regiment. She looked at them some time with mingled feelings of curiosity and wonder; then turning to her conductor, and giving vent to a deep sigh, she remarked, in a long whining tone, "why the Lors a Massy, they's just like our folks, for the world; I thought from what I hearn, they was as big as three on 'em, and could pull up saplings by the roots!" She left disappointed.




DAILY TIMES [LEAVENWORTH, KS], June 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
A Printer's Story.—It was a pretty extensive 'breach of the peace, that battle at Shiloh,' (writes a Chicago printer, from his prison at Macon, Georgia.) "The roar of musketry, from six in the morning till night, sounded like an immense waterfall. No cessation, nor rest—continual and desperate fighting. Dead men lay literally in heaps. In some places where the wounded lay, the brush caught fire, and we could hear them scream as the flames reached them. I shudder when I think of it. Another remarkable feature of the battle was the number of dead negroes lying about in secesh uniform. Draw your own inference. I have seen negroes with guns in their hands, acting as sentries. Infer.
No cotton is allowed to be raised this year—the attention of planters being given chiefly to corn. No more whisky can be distilled in the Confederacy. Whisky is scarce. Everything is scarce but the guard. I would like to make myself scarce; but the guard is in the way, and they have a strong proclivity for shooting if a Yankee crosses their beat. They shot at somebody who tried to escape last night, looked at it in the morning, and found it was the fence.
We have facilities for bathing here, and the men avail themselves of the chance. To-day I did my washing (one shirt), hung it upon the grass and stood guard over it till dry. Somebody may think it hard to only have one shirt, but I console myself by thinking that many of us have none."




DAILY TIMES [LEAVENWORTH, KS], November 17, 1863, p. 3, c. 1
Twenty-three negroes, found in arms on the river plantation of Jeff. Davis, in Mississippi, were captured on Tuesday, the 3d. The negroes fired on our troops, but without effect. Several of the negroes are the property of Jeff.




LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, December 5, 1861, p. 2, c. 4
The following from the Memphis Avalance [sic], is a record of one of many instances in which negroes have fought the invaders. Many a Hessian has been made to bite the dust and sent to his long home by bullets from the guns of faithful slaves:
["] In the recent battle of Belmont, lieutenant Shelton, of the 13th Arkansas regiment, had his servant Jack in the fight. Both Jack and his master were wounded, but not till they had made most heroic efforts to drive back the insolent invaders. Finally, after Jack had fired at the enemy twenty-seven times, he fell seriously wounded in the arm. Jacks' son was upon the field, and loaded the rifle for his father, who shot at the enemy three times after he was upon the ground. Jack's son hid behind a tree, and when the enemy retreated, they took him to Cairo and refused to let him return. Jack was taken from the field in great pain, and brought to the Overton Hospital, where he bore his sufferings with great fortitude till death relieved him of his pains yesterday. His example may throw a flood of light upon the fancied philanthropy of abolitionism. Jack was a brave and obedient servant, and deserves all praise for his heroic conduct upon the bloody field of Belmont.["]



SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, October 9, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
In Camp, Oct. 7th, 1861.
Mr. Editor:-Since the recent accession to the number of our troops, there is a constant demand for musicians, and any negro that can blow a fife or beat a drum—no matter how poorly—is in great request. The class of negroes who have furnished military music is, for the larger part, free men, and the frequent passage of soldiers through the city of Savannah has enabled them to get "war prices" for their labors, as a company will pay well for a day or two's music, but may not be willing to pay in the same proportion for twelve months. The consequence is, that musicians cannot be had by volunteer corps for six or twelve months without paying them from $80 to $85 per month. When our brave soldiers receive but $11 for the same period, it seems hard to them that negroes should command more. I would therefore suggest that all free negroes who are musicians be compelled to enter service for Government wages. It is but right, that while colored people are exempt from all duty, they should contribute something for the benefit of the service. Will you call the attention of the public to it?
Yours Respectfully,
Barrax.



[NEW ORLEANS] DAILY PICAYUNE, April 1, 1864, p. 1, c. 5

Raising Negro Troops for the Confed-
erate Service.

The New York Tribune's correspondent, who was compelled to accept an office in the rebel War Department, but made his escape, makes, from Washington, the following statements of the discussion in Confederate counsels as to arming the slaves. He asserts that the slaves do oftentimes fight bravely for their masters, but thinks they would not do so as a class:
. . .In truth there are a considerable number of negroes bearing arms in the Confederate army now. They are not so employed by any order of the War Department, nor are they generally formed into companies by themselves, but when they fight they fight side by side with the white soldier. These negroes for the most part belong to the officers and men of the commands to which they are attached. In the Confederate service a private may, if he choose, be accompanied by a servant, on paying a certain sum for his rations. This is not allowed by any regulation, but it is a privilege that has been permitted from the beginning of the war; and in the cavalry especially a large number of the men, as well as the officers, have their servants to feed and take care of their horses, cook, and do such chores as may be required of them. Many, in fact most of these negroes have been favorites with their young masters at home and are greatly attached to them, and if given a swig or two of rebel lightning (corn whiskey) are ready to right to the death by their sides.
When an engagement is about to take place such of these negroes as are willing to fight are equipped and go into battle with their masters. In March last I was sent as courier by the Secretary of War to Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, and was with his command in Col. Owen's (the 3d Virginia) Regiment, belonging to Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade, at the battle of Kelly's Ford. This regiment is a very aristocratic one, being composed of young men, nearly every one of whom claims to be of an F. F. V., and there are fully a quarter as many negro servants in the command as soldiers. At the battle referred to, these negroes fought magnificently by the side of their masters, and several of them were killed. The servant of McClellan, adjutant of the regiment, displayed a courage and desperation that challenged the admiration of all who saw him, and the day after the fight he received from Col. Owen the present of a handsome sword for his bravery.
This Adjutant McClellan, by the by, is a first cousin of Gen. George B. McClellan, the Union hero of seven days' battles around Richmond. He is a fac-simile of the General, at least in appearance, and for his devotion to the rebel cause was recently promoted to major on Gen. Stuart's staff.
But to return for a moment to the negro soldiers: Gen. Bragg, in a communication to Mr. Seddon, stated that at the battle of Stone's river, four companies of negroes, which had been formed out of servants attached to the army, and officered by white men, conducted themselves with great credit, exhibiting a fearless determination not excelled by the best soldiers of his command. He recommended the immediate organization of 200,000 soldiers of this class, to be distributed in companies and regiments in the armies then in the field.
But you may rest assured that, although there are a few slaves who would fight for their masters in aid of the rebellion, that nine out of ten of them have now too large a sense of freedom to assist in riveting tighter the chains of bondage upon themselves and fellows; and I believe that the arming of 200,000 of them would, in effect, be equal to an addition of 300,000 soldiers to our armies.



NASHVILLE DAILY UNION, May 7, 1862, p. 3, c. 4
Let the Rebels of Tennessee who have been telling the people that the United States would arm the slaves read this and blush if a blush can crimson their brazen faces:

Negroes Uniformed and in Arms.

Two miles and a quarter below Yorktown are three rebel forts, on the west side of the Warwick river—in front of one of them Lieutenant Wagoner, of Philadelphia, was killed. Our artillery have shelled them out a number of times, and an encampment in the rear has been so riddled that their barracks have been deserted. They have in these three forts six guns—two in the left one, three in the centre, and one on the right. The dam of the Warwick river runs in front, preventing them from coming over or our pickets from reaching them. The artillery, however, make it so hot that they cannot stay in the forts. In the centre one can be seen, every day, from two to three hundred negroes, with red coats, gray pants and slouch hats, strengthen the work with sand bags, digging ditches, etc. Whenever they dare to come out to fire their artillery, which is simply field artillery, these negroes ram home the [scratch in film] with which white men then fire at the hearts of our soldiers. Any one who doubts that the rebels are fighting side by side with their slaves, can be convinced at any hour of the day by going up to the edge of the woods, about twelve hundred yards in front of their works. With the aid of any ordinary glass, the matter can be put beyond room for a doubt.

**********

NASHVILLE DAILY UNION, May 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
A Yorktown letter to the Providence Press says that the Rebels have negroes impressed into their service. Two black fellows of Herculean frame, were shot dead by the Union pickets. They were "armed and equipped as the law directs," and had a couple of splendid Enfield rifles, with a finer finish than any of our arms.




VICKSBURG [MS] DAILY HERALD, February 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
Not Killed.—The Memphis Bulletin of the 28th inst., says: "A gentleman just from Grenada, Miss., states that there are at that place a number of negroes who were captured and not killed, as was supposed, with others, at Fort Pillow. They are employed on the rebel quartermaster's and other departments, and are very closely watched."



Negro Troops

A member of the Indiana Twentieth Regiment, now encamped near Fortress Monroe, writes to the Indianapolis Journal on the 23rd.

Yesterday morning General Mansfield with Drake de Kay, Aide-de-Camp in command of seven companies of the 20th New York, German Riffles, left Newport News on a reconnaissance. Just after passing Newmarket Bridge, seven miles from camp, they detached one company as an advance, and soon after their advance was attacked by 600 of the enemy's cavalry.

The company formed to receive cavalry, but the CAVALRY ADVANCING deployed to the right and left when within musket range and unmasked a body of SEVEN HUNDRED negro infantry, all armed with muskets, who opened fire on our men, wounding two lieutenants and two privates, and rushing forward surrounded the company of Germans who cut their way through killing six of the negroes and wounding several more. The main body, hearing the firing, advanced at a double-quick in time to recover their wounded, and drive the enemy back, but did not succeed in taking any prisoners. The wounded men TESTIFY POSITIVELY that they were shot by Negroes, and that not less than seven hundred were present, armed with muskets.

This is, indeed, a new feature in the war. We have heard of a regiment of Negroes at Manassas, and another at Memphis, and still another at New Orleans but did not believe it till it came so near home, and attacked our men. THERE IS NO MISTAKE ABOUT IT. The 20th German were actually attacked and fired on and wounded by Negroes.

It is time that this thing was understood, and if they fight us with Negroes, why should not we fight them with Negroes too? We have disbelieved these reports too long, and now let us fight the devil with fire. The feeling is intense among the men. They want to know if they came here to fight Negroes, and if they did, they would like to know it. The wounded men swear they will kill any Negro they see, so excited are they at the dastardly act. It remains to be seen how long the Government will now hesitate, when they learn these facts. One of the Lieutenants was shot in the back part of the neck, and is not expected to live.

Sandusky Ohio Register
December 31, 1861
Above From:
Indianapolis Journal December 23, 1861








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