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Book references

Conquering the Valley, by Robert K. Krick, 1996.

Terror infected both the enlisted troops and some of the company's black supernumeraries. Other men in each category would stand firm and soon would pose a sturdy barricade in Carrols path. page 81 ref. 47 ( Speaking of the Charlottesville Artillery)
Unlike the hurried artillery defense at Moore's corner, where key participants had been a sixteen year old and an ostensibly non-combatant black barber ---- page 94,

The only blood he saw was on a wounded strawberry roan that black barber Edmund Drew corralled for his brave conduct. Page 110

While Stonewall Jackson dealt with the procession of visitors ----- a detachment of black pioneers enlisted as an engineer detachment laboriously constructed a bridge over the South River. page 288

Mason's crew of workman known as his "African Pioneers" labored all through the night. page 289

When the last of the Confederate rear guard cleared the village and hurried across the South River Wagon bridge, Sandy Garber and his Black Pioneers broke up the temporary span "one of the black drivers, Garber recalled, performed "as brave an act as we witnessed during the war." Federal riflemen had crawled down to the riverbank...and began shooting at the Confederates. Just as [the driver] was ready to pull out, his saddle horse was killed under him, but he coolly snatched the harness off, mounted the off wheeler and drove out whistling a march, being a regular fifer on a whistle." Garber then asked a superior officer what [he and his Black pioneers] should do next, he was told "Run like the devil, you fools" and Garber and his pioneers did just that, "we stood not upon the order of our going, but WENT." They left 19 dead horses and mules behind them.

Fremont was cut-off from Jackson's men, because all the bridges had been burned, so he let loose his artillery onto the now cold battlefield, where ambulances and stretcher-bearers were collecting Union and Confederate wounded. A Confederate detachment of Black stretcher-bearers come under Fremont's artillery fire. Chaplain Richard McIIwaine of the 44th Virginia was superintending the removal of a wounded soldier from his regiment when Fremont opened. "Not one of the negroes flinched," McIIwaine reported proudly, "and in a few moments by quick-step we were hidden from the malicious and cowardly scoundrels by the woods." The man those Black Confederates saved was Robert S. Campbell, who would be a County Sheriff in 1906. Pages 450 - 452

Four years in the Stonewall Brigade By John Overton Casler

Directly after we went into winter quarters, near Orange Court House, the Louisiana brigade and our brigade joined together and built a large log house, covered it with clapboards, erected a stage, organized a theatrical troupe of negro minstrels and gave performances nearly every night to a crowded audience. "Admission one dollar—net proceeds to be given to widows and orphans of Confederate soldiers."

Noble T. Johnson, of the 5th Virginia, was one of the end men, handled the bones, and was one of the most comical characters I ever saw. He could keep the house in a roar of applause all the time. Miller, of the 1st Louisiana, was banjoist, and a splendid performer. They would write some of their own plays, suitable to the times and occasion. page 204

I Rode with Stonewall By Henry Kyd Douglas

While Early's Brigade was on the North Side of the Rappahannock, a negro servant belonging to one of the officers, captured and brought into camp a German soldier. page 131

Stonewall in the Valley: Thomas J. 'Stonewall' Jackson's Shenandoah Valley ...By Robert G. Tanner page 234

"One of the units that joined the Valley Army with Johnson's command was a remarkable platoon of negro laborers, the "African Pioneers."

Black Confederates By Charles Kelly Barrow, Joe Henry Segars, Randall Britt Rosenburg

This is only one account of many found in this book. It is my suggestion that if you desire more examples purchase the book. I selected this account because it represents the CSA Navy.

Meanwhile the Confederate States Navy never hesitated to enlist black sailors. The CSS Chicora, an ironclad gunboat based in Charleston Harbor, counted 3 free blacks among its company. ------- CSS Alabama. A photograph taken of two of his officers lounging against one of the Alabama's guns, shows a black seaman standing in the background. page 47

Richmond: the story of a city By Virginius Dabney
Street cleaners were put to work building fortifications and unemployed free negroes were seized on the streets for similar tasks. Later the blacks were paid $11 a month, the compensation of a private in the Confederate Army. page 165
Large numbers of negroes were employed, many in highly responsible positions.

More than two thousand slave and free workers---------- page 183

Nathan Bedford Forrest's escort and staff By Michael R. Bradley

Polk Arnold of Shelbyville joined the Escort in 1863 at the age of nineteen he served as a private until his death at Harrisburg, Mississippi on July 17, 1864. His wife Caledonia Arnold, received a pension years later (Confederate Pension Records). The pension application states Arnold was a negro. page 48

I have read that Polk Arnold did not die at Harrisburg as reported. I will be doing more reserach into the matter as time allows.

At this time, this is the only account I can find of a black being in the actual escort. There is possibly more, but the book is not clear enough on that person to use as a reference. That sort of addresses the argument of "40 negroes in Forrest's escort." The entry below however does serve to prove there were more blacks who served in Forrest's command. It is not known at this time how many, but for example if each set of papers took one hour to complete and the work day was at least 8 hours long that would give us a total of 24 at the minimum. This does not address any free blacks, if any, who may have been with Forrest or any slaves who may have belonged to others. (GP)

He recalled that Forrest came to the headquarters building and asked in a loud voice fro "that clerk Major Strange told him about." Cable was soon presented with a sheet of paper and was told "Here's the legal form for you to follow and the niggers'll come to you one by one as you want 'em. Here Tom you be first" And so the negroes came forward, one after the other; until Cable had written out manumission papers for each one, a task that consumed the working hours of three days.

Here is another reference to blacks in Forrest's escort, it has no source and is used to verify the above source. As I order records some more light should be shed on this subject. In my opinion, this book is by no means a pro Forrest publication, it gives outright descriptions of how Forrest is perceived, which are not good. (GP)

The myth of Nathan Bedford Forrest By Paul Ashdown, Edward Caudill page 184-185

"In Knoxville, Tennessee, a retired African American teacher who claims his grandfather served with Forrest 7th Tennessee Calvary at Shiloh and Brices Crossroads, told the Sons of Confederate Veterans audience That his grandfather was buried in uniform. he said his grandfather had told him that Forrest was a great general who had received bad press. He had seven Negro guards and must have not been all that bad if he could lay down to sleep at night guarded by seven negroes."

Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia By Ervin L. Jordan
Page 190-191

The regiments of the army of Northern Virginia averaged 20-30 body servants each during the Gettysburg campaign. Confederate officer encountered one of these armed body servants, dressed in a cast off Yankee uniform, conducting a barefooted white man to the rear as a prisoner of war. When asked to explain himself, the black man replied the two Confederates who were assigned to guard the Yankee had gotten drunk so he decided to take charge of the prisoner to prevent his escape.

Extracts from --

"Negro Soldiers In the Confederate Army, by John A. Minion (from a publication called "The Crisis" June-July 1970) pages 230-231.

"The Crisis, founded in 1910 is the official organ of the NAACP.

Mr. Minion for 30 years a researcher of Civil War archives and Western Americana has written extensively on the nations military history.

--- of a Negro Company ready to assist the Confederacy. It was the First Regt. South Carolina Volunteers --Col. D. H. Hamilton commanding. Another line for another black officer, one Col. Gregg, regiment not known, but who fought daringly for the South and gave his life on the field at Fredricksburg.

--- 40 years after Appomattox----. One paper revealed that the South had enlisted Nearly one year before the Army of Potomac.

--- plan by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to draft into the armed forces but was shelved for the time being. ------- to draft negroes would place the home front in jeopardy.

---- Union General Benjamin Butler issued an order for the reorganizing of the (1st Louisiana) Native Guards for their enlistment into the Army of the United States. To this invitation only a few of the rank and file --perhaps humiliated by the past snub-- came forward."

The Civil War in Louisiana By John David Winters page 34

By early 1862 there were more than 3,000 members of colored military organizations.

This is all of the book references I am going to offer at least until I can get most of my research posted to this website. Should I find something really interesting, I will post it here immediately.

I will now present some portions of THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: A COMPILATION OF THE OFFICIAL RECORDS (ORs) OF THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES from this point on referred to as the ORs. The ORs I used are found at By clicking the link on the ORs a person can get a very good idea of what the books cover. I am sure they are not complete but are the most comprehensive collection of records to date.